“Numerical and Experimental Modelling of Wave Loads on Thin Porous Sheets”
Paper No: OMAE2019-95148, V009T12A019; 10 pages
Abstract: This work considers the numerical modelling of wave interaction with thin porous structures, based on tests conducted in simplified conditions. Wave flume tests were conducted to measure the wave loads on thin porous sheets extending over the full water column. The porous sheets tested had a range of porosities, hole separation distances and thicknesses. Numerical and analytic models for the wave forces on the porous sheet are formulated under the assumptions of either a linear or quadratic pressure loss across the porous sheet. An iterative boundary element method (BEM) model is formulated to solve the quadratic pressure loss across the porous sheet. It is shown that the assumption of a linear pressure loss at the porous boundary is inadequate to capture the variation in the wave load with both wave frequency and amplitude, but that the quadratic model is in good agreement with the measured forces. The porosity of the sheet is shown to have the dominant effect on the wave loads. The hole separation distance affects the phase of the force on the porous wall, but has only a small effect on the amplitude of the force. The sheet thickness is shown to have a small effect on the amplitude of the force but a significant effect on the phase of the force. The results are of interest for numerical modelling of structures with thin porous boundaries in a wide range of contexts such as breakwaters, aquaculture and offshore structures with porous elements designed to reduce loads.
“Impact Of Rotor Misalignment Due To Platform Motions On Floating Offshore Wind Turbine Blade Loads”
Paper No: OMAE2019-95759, V010T09A051; 10 pages
Abstract: The rotor of a horizontal-axis floating offshore wind turbine is more frequently misaligned with the oncoming wind than that of a fixed offshore or onshore wind turbine due to the pitch and yaw motions of the floating support structure. This can lead to increased unsteady loading and fatigue on the components beyond those considered in the standard load cases. In this work, the Simulator fOr Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) tool within the CFD toolbox OpenFOAM is used to perform simulations of a wind turbine at different stationary angles to the oncoming wind flow that a floating wind turbine may experience, so that the impact of misaligned flow on power production and blade loading can be studied. The turbine is modelled using an actuator line method which is coupled with NREL’s aeroelastic code FAST to compute the structural response. The results of this study will be used in future work to optimise the rotor geometry of a floating offshore wind turbine.
“Frequency Domain Analysis of a Hybrid Aquaculture-Wind Turbine Offshore Floating System”
Paper No: OMAE2019-96171, V006T05A024; 6 pages
The aquaculture industry is being pushed into deeper waters, to accommodate the increasing demand for seafood worldwide and the lack of nearshore sites: aquaculture systems for farther, harsher conditions are now being proposed. The Blue Growth initiative by the European Union is also tuned in the same direction, with the focus being on developing ocean based resources, including energy and aquaculture, and finding synergies among them. The present work proposes a novel multi-purpose platform (MPP), by retrofitting a feed barge with a small wind turbine and energy storage system, able to provide sustainable energy to a reference offshore aquaculture farm. The requirements and constraints for such hybrid system are defined, as well as a set of keys load cases, and its performance are analysed in the frequency domain. Wave loads are modelled using linear potential theory, while from an aerodynamic point of view, only the maximum thrust at the wind turbine hub level is considered in the static stability analysis. With reference to stability criteria and dynamic analysis in frequency domain, the suitability of the proposed MPP to act as a source of feed storage and energy supply is established, showing this as a potentially suitable solution.
“Hybrid renewable energy systems sizing for offshore multi-purpose platforms”
Paper No: OMAE2019-96017, V010T09A059; 7 pages
Abstract: Integrating marine renewables and aquaculture is a complex task. The generated power of each renewable technology depends on its source cycle (wind, wave, solar PV), leading to periods of zero power production. On the other side, aquaculture farms require smooth and stable power supply since any power shortage can lead to the loss of the entire farm production. This paper illustrates the sizing of a hybrid energy system (wind,solar PV, energy storage) to power up the aquaculture farm. The sizing is based on available commercial technology and the system is mounted on a single multi-purpose platform. Reliability is improved by considering device redundancies. Such hybrid system has not been considered before for aquaculture farms. System rough sizing, based on simple online renewable energy calculators, is used to select existing renewable technologies and HOMER Pro simulation software is used to evaluate the technical and economic feasibility of the microgrid for all possible combinations of the technology selected and perform sensitivity analysis on wind turbine tower height, battery state of charge and solar PV panels reflectance. The optimisation is subject to combined dispatch strategy and net present cost.
“Linear evolution of a narrow-banded surface gravity wave packet over an infinite step”
Paper No: OMAE2019-96082, V07BT06A063; 9 pages
Abstract: This paper focuses on the classical and fundamental problem of waves propagating over an infinite step in finite water depth. Specifically, this paper aims to extend classical narrow-banded wave theory for constant water depth which uses a multiple-scales expansion to the case of an abrupt change in the water depth, known as an infinite step. This paper derives the linear evolution equations and is the first step towards the calculation of second-order and higher-order effects for wavepackets travelling over a step using commonly employed envelope-type evolution equations, in particular the bound sub- and super-harmonics at second order.
“Application of 4-phase decomposition to the analysis of random time series from wave basin tests”
Paper No: OMAE2019-95172, V009T12A020; 10 pages
Abstract: Many ocean engineering problems involve bound harmonics which are slaved to some underlying assumed close to linear time series. When analyzing signals we often want to remove the bound harmonics so as to “linearise” the data or to extract individual bound harmonic components so that they may be studied. For even moderately broadbanded systems filtering in the frequency domain is not sufficient to separate components as they overlap in frequency. One way to overcome this difficulty is to use input signals with the same linear envelope but with different phases and then use simple addition and subtraction of the resulting signals to extract different harmonics. This approach has been established for the analysis of wave groups. In this paper we examine whether this approach can be used on random time series as well. We analyse random wave time series of wave elevation from the towing tank in Shanghai Jiao Tong University and force measurements on a cylinder taken in the Kelvin tank at the University of Strathclyde.
“Numerical Analysis of Nonlinear WaveLoads on an Offshore Wind Turbine Monopile”
Paper No: OMAE2019-95161, V009T12A011; 11 pages
Abstract: Highly nonlinear extreme waves are the major, often the dominant, environmental load on offshore wind turbines. The higher-order ‘ringing’ loads associated with the nonlinear waves can cause unexpected resonance of the monopile. Hydrodynamic analysis of these harmonic loads remains a challenge due to the difficulty in extracting the bound harmonics from the force spectrum in an extreme wave event. A phase manipulation approach (four-phase combination) has been recently demonstrated to be able to separate the higher harmonic components of the wave loads in tank tests. In this work, we employ a fully nonlinear potential flow based Numerical Wave Tank (NWT) to simulate the wave diffraction by a fixed vertical column. We present a detailed study of our checks on the numerical accuracy of our model. Phase control is implemented for the wavemaker to manipulate the phase of each wave component. Focused wave groups are generated to represent the incoming extreme waves. With the four-phase decomposition, the higher harmonics of the wave loads are shown to be clearly separated. Comparisons with the existing test results show fairly good agreement at higher harmonics. The structure of the harmonic forces and moments are analysed and we reconstruct the higher harmonics based on the Stokes expansion assumption using the linear force. In addition, the effects of wave steepness on the harmonic components are discussed.